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2012/12/08

En 1860, Napoléon III impose le libre-échange


Conscient des effets pervers du protectionnisme, Michel Chevalier (1806-1879), le conseiller de Napoléon III et par ailleurs saint-simonien repenti, débute en octobre 1859 une négociation secrète avec l'homme d'Etat anglais Richard Cobden (1804-1865)
 écrit Jacques-Marie Vaslin, maître de conférences à l'IAE d'Amiens, dans Le Monde.
Napoléon III est ensuite approché par les deux hommes.

Le convaincre est chose aisée, l'empereur souhaite le réchauffement des relations avec l'Angleterre ainsi que le développement économique. Napoléon III, auteur en 1844 d'un opuscule intitulé L'Extinction du paupérisme, reste persuadé que le développement de l'industrie améliore le bien-être de tous.

Le traité est dévoilé le 15 janvier 1860 et signé huit jours plus tard alors que personne ne l'attendait. L'ouverture des frontières entre les deux pays est annoncée sans même passer devant le Parlement. La France supprime toutes les prohibitions et les remplace par des droits de douane qui ne doivent pas dépasser 30 %. Ceux concernant les matières premières et les produits alimentaires sont abolis. L'Angleterre supprime, quant à elle, une bonne partie de ses droits de douane.

… la baisse des prix des aliments a engendré une amélioration des conditions de vie des Français, et c'était bien là l'objectif principal de Napoléon III. 
 Comme l'expliquait Sophie Gherardi,
Ce n'est qu'après la catastrophe de 1939-1945 que les Etats-Unis, nouveau leader mondial, abaissent leurs propres barrières et demandent aux autres nations d'en faire autant dans un cadre multilatéral ; l'Europe, quant à elle, construit le Marché commun. L'équation "commerce égale paix" l'emporte pour un demi-siècle.

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Son illustre ailleul avait délocalisé le roi du Portugal ... et c'est ainsi que naquit LE BRESIL... La Mondialisation se fait à coup de BRICK!!

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